Malena je Fruška gora, Al’ je dika rodu svom

(Koračnica)

Celom dužinom Fruške gore, ispod šume a iznad Dunava i sremske ravnice, nalaze se pobrđe i pribrđe. To je Fruškogorje u vinogradarskom smislu, jedan od najlepših vinogradarskih krajeva u našoj zemlјi. Na tim bregovima živi vredni, vedri i vispreni živalј, nazvan Fruškogorci ili „planinci”, koji pored niza ekonomskih, migracionih, invazionih, vodenih i drugih peripetija ostade na tom terenu dugih 1700 godina privijen uz vinovu lozu kojoj je davao lјubav i znoj, a od koje je dobivao veselјe, nadahnuće i deo svoje neobuzdane individualnosti. Odavde su ponikli fruškogorski batalјoni i heroji, ali i Branko Radičević, sremske vinopije i „Kole Brenjoni”. Istorija i mentalitet Fruškogoraca prisno su vezani za vinograde i vino jer još:

Probus cesar baš iz Srima grada, dokle jošte Slavonijom vlada, najpri poče na Fruškoj planini i plemenit vinograd načini.

(Matija Antun Relјković: Satir iliti divii čovik, 1762)

Prosti puk zaboravi na čestitog cezara, što zbog vinove loze izgubi mladi život (ubili ga vlastiti vojnici u vinogradu, lјuti na teški rad na koji nisu bili navikli), ali „neko je, ipak, bogamu božijeg” morao doneti tu blagorodnu bilјku na ove plemenite bregove pa kaže:

Tri ptičice goru preletele, svaka nosi u klјunu znamenje: jedna nosi vlatak od pšenice, druga nosi vinovu lozicu, treća nosi zdravlјe i veselјe. Koja nosi vlatak od pšenice, ona pade na tu ravnu Bačku, te je Bačka žitom izobilna. Koja nosi vinovu lozicu, oia pade na Frušku goricu, te je Fruška vinom izobilna.

(Narodna pesma po M. Urbaniu)

Ovaj svoj trud posvećujem utemelјivačima i osnivačima, ocima moje struke.*

Dr Sima P. Lazić

Sadržaj

Umesto uvoda
Vinogradski tereni Fruške gore i rejonizacija
O klimatskim karakteristikama Fruške gore
Vinogradske površine i površine pod vinogradima
Priprema zemlјišta i sađenje vinograda
Radovi u vinogradu
Bolesti i štetočine vinove loze
Bubrenje vinograda i ishrana čokota
Sorte vinove loze
Podrumi i podrumska oprema
Berba i prerada grožđa
Vrenje
Negovanje i pretakanje vina
Bistrenje vina
Upotreba sumpordioksida u vinarstvu
Bolesti i mane vina
Nekorektni postupci sa grožđem i vinom
Fruškogorska vina
Specijalna fruškogorska vina
Ostali proizvodi od grožđa i vina
Zaklјučak
Aiteratura
Rezime

Umesto uvoda

Fruškogorje i fruškogorci u pesmi

Trećoj, što „nosi zdravlјe i veselјe” prema narodnom pesniku nekako se zameo trag, izgubio je iz vida, ali „planinci” sa Fruške gore čvrsto veruju da je ptičica bila toliko opterećena da je, možda, mogla Venac i Čot preleteti, ali širok Dunav nikako pa je i svoj teret istovarila ovde, na te bregove i u te vinograde. A da nije bilo tako, zar bi berba mogla izgledati ovako:

Zora zori, sve poustajalo, Pa s’ uz brdo veselo nagnalo. Svirac svira, puške popucuju, Mome poju, momci podvikuju, Jošte malo — eto vinograda, Gledaj sada ubavoga rada:

Beri, nosi, čas dole, čas gore, Momci klikću, a pesme se ore, „Živo, živo” — jedan drugog kori, Živo s’ radi, al’ niko s’ ne mori: Gledni samo posle uje svake. Gledni samo one noge lake, Ta tek što se svirac čuje, Već u kolu s’ poskakuje.

Kolo, kolo, svirac svira, Noga zemlјu ne dodira. „Sitno, brate, ijujuju!” Momci čili podvikuju:

Pa onda: Kolovođa kolom vija, Kolo leti, znoj probija, — Al’ u tvojih nedri tude Okle snega do dve grude? Čudo, sele, divno čudo, Ala bih se mlađan grudb!

Kolo, kolo, naša dika, Puška puca: cika, cika! Pa sve tako, pucaj, beri, Pevaj, igraj do večeri, A kad sunce veće seda, Besna momčad još se ne da, Ide kući, podvikuje, Puni puške, popucuje, Svirac svira, moma poje: „Kolovođa, zlato moje!”

Pa u krčmu, te do zore, Kolo igra, pesme s’ ore, A u zoru s’ zajuhuče, Udri opet ka i juče.

(Branko Radičević: Iz Bačkog rastanka)

„Planinci“ i svoje vino: su ponosni na Frušku goru, na svoje vinograde

Fruškogorje kruno raviog Srema, Nigde takvih vinograda nema.

Irig ti je prestonica vina, Ima više od petsto godina. Fruškogorci ispijajmo čaše, Jer to samo krepi zdravlјe naše.

(Neobjavlјena narodna pesma)

Zaista, Fruškogorcima, kad se nađu, i prošlost je bila lepša, junačnija, slavnija. Uz vino i Marko Kralјević je bivao veći junak:

Amo vina i u toga ćupa, Pa ondaka zapevajmo skupa, Pa još pesmu gdeno Arapinu Marko vojske pobi polovinu, Te zadobi tog krvavog dana Sedamdeset onih teških rana; Gleda care ove rane lјute, Pa govori: „Ko izleči Marka, Evo njemu hilјadu dukata!” Sinu dukat ka’no sunce jarko Planu Marko, pa dukate hvata: „Vina amo, krčmarice draga!” Pa zamalo od rana ni traga.

Al’ ne treba gubiti vreme, vidimo da ume Marko i sam da se snaće, nije ni on „mutav”, nego:

Brže, braćo, čaše napunimo, Napunimo onog vina žarka, Kucnimo se, pa onda napijmo Ta desnici Kralјevića Marka, Što udari silnog Madžarinu, Od bedra mu otrže mačinu, Seva maču — Filip na dve pole — Mač proleće, pa u kamen dole: Puca kamen, vatra iza nj seva, Marko gleda, brk mu se osmeva, Al’ da j’ kamen vincem potekao, Bi tad Marko, bogme, zakliktao.

Klikni, brate, ko što čini soko, Ispij čašu da t’ zasuzi oko! Oh, tako se za Markom jaduje, Takom suzom on se oplakuje! — Umre Marko, njega nam nestade, Ali ništa, bar vinca ostade, Jer da j’ Marko još živeo duže, Sve bi vince popio nam, druže!

Eto sreće u nesreći! Uostalom, odavno se zna da je Marko bio „bitanga”:

Ta znaće se Marko ubojica, Ubojica, lјu ga pijanica, Dokle mači, dokle čaše zveče, Dokle sunca, dokle vina teče!

Ali nije reč samo o Marku, još nas ima, pošto:

Oj, vi srpski vitezovi, Vi, zmajevi, sokolovi, Ta ima vas na hilјade, Al’ brojiti nemam kade, Ta kad bih vas sve brojio, Kad bih, jadan, vinca pio!

(Branko Radičević: Iz Đačkog rastanka)

Ni Fruškogorke nisu ni korak zaostajale za Fruškogorcima. Ne daju se Sremice tek tako:

A što su mi Karlovkinje bele, rumene? Vino piju, papar zoblјu, te su rumene. Kad muž ide na oranje, žena u krčmu; Kad muž ide sa oranja, žena u krevet: „Jao mužu, lele mužu, umreti oću!” „Jao ženo, živa želјo, a što mi ti je?” „Jao mužu, lele mužu, glava me boli!” „Jao ženo, živa želјo, da što ću ti ja?” „Jao mužu, lele mužu, traži mi leka: dozovi mi nerotkinju, koja ne rodi, da umesi pogačicu triput sejanu; ispeci mi šarku koku, koja ne nosi, i petlića bez repića, koji ne peva; donesi mi koidir vina od tri godine!”

(Karlovčanin i Karlovkinja po Vuku Stefanoviću Karadžiću)

U vinogradu i podrumu se veselilo, živelo i iživlјavalo, ali u vinogradu se i patilo, u vinogradu se raćalo, ali se tu i tugovalo, a bome i umiralo:

Živo vežu beračice mlade, Živo vežu mlada vinograda, Živo vežu tananim ševarom; Al’ im jedna druga zaostaje: Kosu reže, njom vinograd veže; Kosi svojoj tiho progovara: „Koso moja, negda diko moja Dokle dragog na svetu bijaše!

Nјega nesta, moje dike s njime — Hajde, koso, hajd i ti za njime!”

I već sreza i kosu poveza, Pa na zemlјu klonu ukraj člana. A sunašce tonu u zapada: Dođe doba da se ide doma;

Zovu cure svoju drugaricu: „Ustaj drugo, ustaj, naša tugo! — Ma šta joj je, što se ne odzivlјe?”

Spava — misle —, pa da je probude;

Idu, bude, ma im muke lude: Srce njojzi u nedrima stalo, — Ona ode za svojime dragim.

(Branko Radičević: Beračice)

Tužne su bile iznenadne fruškogorske smrti, ali kad se unapred znalo da se natrag ne može, da će se umreti, trebalo se s Fruškom gorom i njenim vinogorjem dostojno oprostiti:

Oj, Karlovci, mesto moje drago, K6 detence došao sam amo, Igra beše jedino mi blago, Slatko zvah ja med i smokvu samo. Dete malo — golušavo ptiče, Dođe ptiče, pa se tu naviče,

Oj, Karlovci, lepo l’ živeh tude, Al’ šta mora biti — neka bude. Ta i mene nešto dal>e vuče, Evo, pružam svoga raja kl>uče.

Zato: Zbogom ostaj, ubavo Belilo! Ti mi beše uvek mesto milo, Svud po tebi deklice tanane, Svaka od njih laka ka’no lane,

Zbogom ostaj, krasno Stražilovo!

Mnogi te je u zvezdice kovo, Mnogi reče: „Ao, rajska sliko!” Al’ kb ja te rad ne imo niko.

I: Zbogom, pesme, zbogom, kolo, Zbogom, momci naokolo, Zbogom, kito moma mladi’, Zbogom, grožđe, zbogom, vinogradi!

Vinogradi, zbogom umilјati! Zbogom, grožđe, neću te ja brati! Ao, berbo, tebe žalim kletu, Ta šta lepše od tebe na svetu?! Ko tebeka nikad ne video, Šta je jošte sirotan video?! Ao, braco, amo u to doba, Dođi, vidi, čuj, pa hajd u groba!

(Branko Radičević: Iz Đačkog rastanka)

Tako je to bilo, i veselo i tužno, ali još će biti Fruške gore, biće rezidbi i berbi, pudarine i ćevapa, vina i pesme fruškogorske i slave fruškogorskog vinogorja. Još veće i još slavnije, dok je ovih bregova i Fruškogoraca koji ih vole i koji na njima sade vinograde.

Dr. Sima P. Lazić

Viticulture and viniculture of the fruška gora mountain

Summary

Grapevine has been grown in the Fruška Gora Mountain for a long time. The earliest records are 1700 years old but it is reasonable to believe that vineyards had existed in that region before the Roman Emperor Probus. Numerous songs bear witness of the significance of grapevine to the population of the Fruška Gora Mountain.

Vineyard areas were precisehv defined within a zoning project which was terminated in 1973. The project itemized border stretches wnich separate the vineyard zone from the forest zone on the mountain crest and from the zone of field crops at the mountain feet. Inside the vineyard zone, the best locations for ihe production of high-quality wines are those with concave configuration, i.e., salient plateaus between two mountain streams.

The total area of vineyards in the Fruška Gora Mountain is 55,000 ha of which 6,600 ha are presently in use. The largest number of suitable areas is located in the townships of Irig, Beočin, Novi Sad, Sremska Mitrovica, and Šid. The largest areas are located in the vicinity of the largest wine cellars in Ilok, Petrovaradin, Erdevik, and Irig.

There ere no precise data on the area under vineyards in the past but it is known that the principal producers were monks from Fruška Gora monasteries. The present major producers are large agricultural enterprises.

The following soils of the Fruška Gora Mountain were found to be favorable for grape production: pararendzina soil on loess and maris, rendzina and regosol soils on loess, ranker soils, different types of brown forest soil, and strongly eroded and brownized chernozem soils.

According to the data gathered in four localities (Ilok, Šid, Gladnoš, and Sremski Karlovci) the basic climatic characteristics of the Fruška Gora Mounain are:

— mean annual air temperature: 11.1 to 11.8°C
— vegetative period length: 200 to 220 days
— sum of effective temperatures: 923 to 15O3°C
— annual reainfall: 586 to 745 mm
— rainfall from April to September: 327 to 406 mm.

The eastern part of the Fruška Gora Mountain is somewhat warmer and drier.

The paper reviews cultural practices used in soil preparation before the establishment of a vineyard, method of planting, distance between plants, direction of rows, plant height and form, method of training, operations in the course of the vegetative period, fertilization, and disease and pest protection from the beginning of the 19th century until today.

Reoords from the 18th century show that both white and red grape varieties were grown in the Fruška Gora Mountain and that the wines were highly praised’. Numerous authors described the assortment of grape vaneties of the region: Trummer (1845), Lambl (1873), Stražimir (1876), Kudić and Urbani (1910), Petenkofer (1930), Nemet (1967, 1970, 1975), Csepregi—Zilai (1960), etc. The descriptions include also varieties which started to be grown after the occurrence of phylloxera as well as those used to renew and impnove the grape production after the World Vvar II. Those were times of significant changes in the assortment. Phylloxera brought a large reduction in the portion of red varieties as well as white varieties for tne production of table wines (Slankamenka White, Mirkovača). Quaiity wine varieties started to be grown instead: Slankamenka Red, Dinka Red, etc. The assortment, and wine quality with it, continued to be improved after the World War II through the establishment of new vineyards at state-owned farms. The new vineyards included varieties for production of quality white wines: Italian Riesling, Traminer Red, Semillon, Sauvignon, Pinot White, Župljanka, and Neoplanta. Presently, these varieties take 23% of the total area under vineyards. In social sector, their participation in the assortment is much higher, reaching 75%.

Other vvhite wine varieties, as Slankamenka Red, Bouvier, Rose, etc., take 53% of the total area, red wine varieties (Prokupac, Portugieser, Blaufrankisch, etc.) take about 16%, white table varieties (Muscat d’Hamburg, Cardinal, Shasselas, Dattier de Beyrouth, Queen of Vineyard, Pearl de Chaba, etc.) take only 8%.

Numerous analytical data and organoleptic evaluations provide precise information on the characters of the Fruška Gora wines, both those produced in the last two decades and those from the 19th century when first analyses of wine quality were made. Compared with the presently produced wines, oider white wines had somewhat lower contents of alcohol and extracts because they were made from high-yielding varieties, e.g., Slankamenka White and Dinka Red. Red wines, including rose wines, were fuller and had higher contents of alcohol and extracts. They were made mostly from the variety Kadarka.

Before the occurrence of phylloxera wine was made and stored in rooms which were also used for other purposes in the household. With the occurrence of plylloaera, special wine cellars started to be built which served exclusively for wine making and tending. Those wine cellars were usually dug into loess soil. Large celiars started to be built only after the World War II, in social sector. These celiars process the major portion of grapes produced in the surrounding vineyards, and only a small portion is processed in private cellars. The largest wine cellars are located in Ilok, Petrovaradin, Erdevik, Irig, and Bikić.

Vessels for wine making and tending changed with the development of viticulture. At first those were small wooden kegs holding 50 liters or casks holding 500 to 600 liters. Later on, barrels holding 3,000, 5,000, or even 10,000 liters were used, primarily for coupage and clearing of wine. Concrete tanks were built in the postwar period, while presently metal tanks are used.

The accompanying equipment changed parallelly. While the old cellars had only wooden taps, gourds, wooden buckets, and hoses which were at first made of canvas and later on of rubberized canvas, the new ones have a modern equipment for receiving and processing of grapes and tending, stabilization, and bottling of wine.

Wine quality depends to a large extent on the time of grape picking which has always been paid due attention. Grapes are still picked by hand.

Grapes used to be crushed with forked branches and by trodding. Crushed grapes were then placed in canvas sacks which were trodden with bare feet to squeeze out juice. Grape crushers and winepresses with a screw were introduced in the second half of the 19th century and remained a conventional equipment in private cellars to this day. Large wine cellars constructed after the World War II were equipped with continuous presses which have recently started to be replaced with either hydraulic discontinuous presses of continuous presses combined with continuous strainers. In the latter case, quality wines are made only of must coming from the strainer.

Sulphur dioxide started to be used in late 19th century, inserting burning sulphur strips into barrels immediatcly before pouring wine into them. Today, a solution of potassium metabisulphite or liquid sulphur dioxide are added to must or wine.

There was a common practice to keep wine on lees for a long time for it was believed that it „nourishes” wine. Nowadays, wine is separated from lees as soon as the alcoholic fermentation is over.

Wine tending included in the past different methods of protein separation and siphoning. The present wines are treated with bentonite clay and sulphur, while blue clearing, cold stabilization, filtering, and, in some cases, warm bottling are regularly practiced.

The paper describes diseases and shortcomings of wines in the past and today as well as methods of curing them.

The wines currently produced in the Fruška Gora Mountain are mostly dry although special wines, as Ausbruch and aromatized wine Bermet, used to be made. Details of the methods of making and characters of these wines are included in the paper.

Products made of grapes and wine were brandy, wine vinegar, and condensed must as preserves. With the exception of brandy, the other products did not have commeroial significance but were made for the needs of the household.

O autorima

Zaharija Stefanovič Orfelin

Zaharija Stefanovič Orfelin (1726—1785), književnik, naučnik i umetnik. Samouk. Učio po bibliotekama u Budimu, Beču i Veneciji, najviše živeo u mitropolijskom dvoru u Sremskim Karlovcima. Racionalist i prosvetitelј, preteča Dositeja. Od pesama najpoznatija mu je Plač Serbiji, od istorijskog rada Život Petra Velikog, u „Večitom kalendaru” tretira astronomska pitanja. Pionir je i u umetnosti. Bakrorezac i kaligraf. Crtao i rezao naslove i ukrase na rukopisima i knjigama, portrete, pejsaže i alegorijske figure. Zbog radova u Kaligrafiji objavlјenoj 1778. postaje član Bečke umetničke akademije. Pre neku godinu pronađene su bakarne ploče i otisci ornamentalnog pisma ćirilice. Y knjizi Iskusni nodrumar (Beč, 1783) dao je osnov našem podrumarstvu i farmakopeji.

Prokopije Bolić

Prokopije Bolić, arhimandrit Svjatovračevskog manastira Rakovca u Fruškoj gori. Preveo je sa grčkog Jevanđelistar. Godine 1816. u Budimu izdao knjigu Soveršen vinodelac. Koristio latinske i nemačke izvore, a naročito knjigu Šaptala i dr. (1801). Osnivač našeg naučnog i praktičnog vinogradarstva i utemelјivač naše ampelografske nauke.

Mita Petrović

Mita Petrović (1848, Pančevo — 1891, Budimpešta), gimnaziju učio u Pančevu, Sremskim Karlovcima i Vinkovcima, 1882. studirao vinogradarstvo i pčelarstvo u Gorici. Od 1871. je profesor prirodnih nauka i matematike u Učitelјskoj školi u Somboru (do smrti). Od beletrističkog rada objavlјivao je po časopisima književne kritike, referate i putopise. Ostavio je i pedagoških radova i rasprava, napisao je niz udžbenika koji su dugo bili u upotrebi u Vojvodini, Srbiji i Bosni. Popularisao je polјoprivredu. Radovi: Rastok i kako se njime bojadiše kosa, Petrovaradinska česma, Alkalične bare u somborskoj okolini, Bare u Bačkoj, Fruškogorski izvori i pomeni o njima u staroj književnosti, Arterski bunar u Somboru, Zemlјa u Bačkoj i knjige: O poznavanju zemlјe, O popravlјanju zemlјe. Za nas su od neobičnog značaja njegove enološke studije: Sremsko vino, Pojave o graćenju bermeta i odrećivanje ekstrata i Hoeu prilozi za poznavanje vina. Uspostavio je enološku laboratoriju i analizirao vina tada najmodernijim metodama koje su uglavnom i danas referentne. Osnivač je enologije u nas. Podaci njegovih analiza su neocenjiv prilog poznavanju vina toga doba, a njegova kritika i saveti doprineli su unapređenju ove grane.

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